Defragmenting a Mac Hard Drive: Is It Necessary?
Many Mac users who come to the platform from the world of Windows have become accustomed to defragging their PC hard drives from time to time, and thus the inevitable question arrises: do you need to defragment a Macs hard drive? The answer is usually no, you don’t need to defrag a Mac as part of a maintenance routine. We’ll explain why that is the case, but there are exceptions to this and we’ll discuss those too for users who may benefit from defragging.
What is disk defragging anyway?
If you’re confused already, here’s some quick background; disk fragmentation is the gradual inability of a file system to keep related data together, which results in increased hard drive activity as the drive has to seek out related data more often. The result is most often felt as decreased performance of the computer, and the resolution is a process called defragmentation, which basically just reorganizes the data so that related bits are grouped together.
Fragmentation in Windows vs OS X
Fragmentation is so common in the Windows world that the Windows operating system includes built-in defragmenting utilities, which has become a part of the typical maintenance scheme of most PC owners. Newer versions of Windows have generally improved on file fragmentation, but many longtime users continue to perform a regular defrag even if it has turned into a hocus-pocus maintenance routine, and the defrag ability remains intact in the newest versions of Windows, renamed from “Disk Defragmenter” to now be labeled as a more generic “Optimize Drives” function.
On the other hand, Mac OS X includes no such defragging tools or general drive optimizations (no, Repair Disk is not the same thing). One would assume that if Apple felt defragmenting a Mac drive was important enough, it would have included such a feature in the Disk Utility app of OS X, right? But it didn’t, and no such defrag option exists, which should give a pretty clear indicator that for the vast majority of Mac users, defragging an OS X drive simply isn’t a necessary task. There are several reasons for this, one being that the Mac OS X HFS Plus file system automatically defragments files on its own, in a process known as Hot File Adaptive Clustering (HFC). Additionally, many modern Macs ship with SSD, or Flash Storage drives, which don’t ever need to be defragged in general because they have their own maintenance process known as TRIM.
What about the exceptions? What Macs need to be defragged?
Generally, it’s a small cohort of Mac users who may potentially benefit from using manual disk defragmentation tools in OS X. In my many years of Mac experience, the most common user profile who could theoretically benefit from an occasional disk defrag are multimedia creators who have tons of enormous files scattered around an old hard drive. This means things like hundreds if not thousands of 1GB or greater movie files, thousands of huge audio files, or thousands of enormous creative documents, which is usually pro users of tools like Adobe Premier, Logic Pro, Final Cut, Photoshop, or similar apps that create many large multimedia files. Notice I mentioned old hard drive too, because with how OS X works it takes a very long time for file fragmentation to occur, and users who have new drives or who upgrade drives periodically probably won’t ever experience any file fragmentation at all.
If you fit into that limited user sample and have a 2008 Mac Pro with the original hard drive loaded up with thousands of movie files that are 10GB each, you may have a case where defragging could help. There are a variety of apps to use to defrag a Mac drive, but perhaps the most commonly trusted is a utility called iDefrag, which costs about $32 and has a free demo version available. Remember, defrag apps are third party utilities and aren’t supported by Apple, and defrag tools should never be run on SSD flash storage drives.
Another alternative to defragmenting which would have the same end effect is to back up the drive, format the disk, then reinstall OS X and restore from the backup.
OK I don’t need to defrag, but my Mac feels sluggish so now what?
If your Mac feels like it’s running slow, you can usually resolve the issue with a few simple tricks:
- Quit open apps to free up memory, most slow downs are due to RAM constraints and increased virtual memory usage (you can even build your own Quit Everything app if you want)
- Reboot the Mac, this clears caches, frees up memory, and allows you to install core system updates
- Update OS X software, newer versions tend to perform better than previous versions, and some system updates include performance and bug fixes
- Insure the Mac has at least 5-10% of total drive capacity available at all times to adequately provide room for temporary files, caches, virtual memory, swap, and sleep files
- Check for a failing drive with Disk Utility’s “Verify Disk” functionality, if the drive won’t repair and is failing, you can use this simple guide to recover data before it’s too late
You can also follow some specific guidance on what to do if a Mac is running slow, take some additional measures to speed up older Macs that have become sluggish over time, and also get in the habit of performing some general system maintenance to keep things running well over the life of a Mac.
Any questions or comments? Let us know!